The fine components of crude palm oil are carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, phosphorus, triterpenoids and aliphatic alcohols. Although these minor constituents represent less than 1% of palm oil’s composition, they play an important role in stabilizing and styling the oil, additionally adding to its nutritional value.
Crude palm oil contains 500 – 700 ppm of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene and β-carotene, vitamin A carotenoids are usually a precursor to thermal damage during the deodorizing refining process stage. However, their presence contributes to some oxidation protection by the oil itself before the triglycerides are oxidized.
b >Natural Vitamin E / Tocotrienols
Crude palm oil contains 600 – 1000 ppm natural vitamin E and tocotrienols. These are slightly lower at refined palm oil levels. The main forms of natural vitamin E and tocotrienols present in palm oil are alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol. Natural tocopherols and tocotrienols are antioxidants and act to protect the oil from natural oxidation.
c > sterols
The sterols of crude palm oil are in the form of sitosterol (218-370 ppm), campesterol (90-151 ppm), stigmasterol (44-66 ppm), cholesterol (7-ppm) and others (nearly ppm). After refining, they were reduced to 68-114 ppm, respectively in ppm, 26-30PPM, 12-23ppm and 2 ppm. It must be emphasized that the cholesterol values of crude and refined palm oil are lower than those of most vegetable oils.
d > Phospholipids and triterpene alcohols
These ingredients are present in very small amounts in crude palm oil. The major forms of phosphatidyls are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. Triterpene alcohols exist in the form of cycloartenol, palmitic acid and cycloartenol.
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