Process description of palm fruit pressing equipment:
1. Sterilization and sterilization:
When harvesting and shipping to the factory, it is necessary to reduce the damage to the raw materials as much as possible. The so-called sterilization is to use 300kPa steam (143°C) in the sterilization equipment to cook the oil palm fruit at high temperature for 60 minutes to destroy the lipase in the pulp, so as to prevent the free fatty acid content in the oil from increasing. In addition, high-temperature sterilization can make the fruit soft, which is convenient for mechanical threshing, and is also conducive to the subsequent shelling of the core, reducing the damage of the kernel.
The fruit grains of oil palm account for about 60% of the whole fruit bunch. The purpose of threshing is to separate the oil palm fruit from the fruit bunch. Mechanical threshing often uses a drum thresher. This thresher has a long horizontal drum with small channels or T-shaped blades inside. The diameter of the drum is generally 1.8~2m, the length is 3~4m, and the speed is 20~25r/min. The drum basket of the threshing machine is equipped with light-weight beating rods. When the drum rotates, the oil palm fruit bundles move upwards first, and then fall down under the action of gravity. The drum turns continuously until it is discharged.
3. Mashing and cooking:
The purpose of mashing and cooking is to tear the skin of the fruit, separate the pulp from the core and mash the pulp tissue, while heating to make the pulp soft and destroy the pulp cell structure. The optimum cooking condition is 90-100°C, and the cooking time is about 20 minutes. The smashing and cooking equipment is a cylindrical tank with a heating jacket. The jacket is heated by indirect steam, and there is a direct steam nozzle in the tank to adjust the moisture and temperature. There is a central shaft equipped with many axial rods inside the tank. There are many lining plates on the inner wall of the tank. There is a material inlet on the upper part and a material outlet on the lower part. Under the impact of the stirring stick and the collision of the liner, the fruit particles mash the pulp.
4. Grease preparation:
Grease is generally produced using a screw press. It has a horizontal box with a hole, which is in the shape of an 8-shaped cross, and there are two screws inside. The core broken rate was adjusted within a reasonable range. After oil palm fruit is pressed, it is divided into two parts: a mixture of oil, water and solid impurities; fiber and core.
5. Crude oil purification:
Crude palm oil generally contains 66% oil, 24% water, and 10% non-oil solids. Because the oil contains more solid impurities, it needs to be washed and diluted with water. The diluted palm oil is filtered to remove the fibrous matter from the oil, and then the palm oil is pumped into the continuous settling tank to separate the mixed oil into upper and lower parts. -Oil and sediment. After the upper part of the grease is skimmed off, it enters the centrifuge for centrifugal separation, then enters the vacuum dryer for drying, and after cooling, it is finally pumped into the storage tank for storage. The sediment contains about 10%. After the oil is recovered, it is returned to the settling tank for secondary sedimentation. The oil pumped into the storage needs to meet certain requirements. The moisture content is between 0.1% and 0.2%, and the impurities should be less than 0.02%. .
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